المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : تعلم اللغه الانكليزيه (دروس متواصله)



Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 02:49:09 +0100
هلو مستريه شلونكم
راح اخلي بهذا المكان دروس تعليم اللغه الانكليزيه
الدروس رح يكونن بالانكليزي
بي اذا حبيتوا ان اترجمهن ما عندي اشكال


كل يوم رح ننطي درس او اكثر
علمود لتصير هوايه على الاعضاء
وان شاء الله يا رب الكل تستفاد من الدروس
لان بسيطه نوعا ما



نبدي بالدرس الاول



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the name of God, the most Merciful, the most Compassionate





English Parts of Speech


There are thousands of words in any language. But not all words have the same job. For example, some words express "action". Other words express a "thing". Other words "join" one word to another word. These are the "building blocks" of the language. Think of them like the parts of a house. When we want to build a house, we use concrete to make the foundations or base. We use bricks to make the walls. We use window frames to make the windows, and door frames to make the doorways. And we use cement to join them all together. Each part of the house has its own job. And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different types of word. Each type of word has its own job.


We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes. These classes are called "parts of speech".
It's quite important to recognize parts of speech. This helps you to analyze sentences and understand them. It also helps you to construct good sentences





Parts Of Speech Table


http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/13/23/52238067.jpg








Words with More than One Job


Many words in English can have more than one job, or be more than one part of speech. For example, "work" can be a verb and a noun; "but" can be a conjunction and a preposition; "well" can be an adjective, an adverb and an interjection. In addition, many nouns can act as adjectives.
To analyze the part of speech, ask yourself: "What job is this word doing in this sentence?"
In the table below you can see a few examples. Of course, there are more, even for some of the words in the table. In fact, if you look in a good dictionary you will see that the word but has six jobs to do:


verb, noun, adverb, pronoun, preposition and conjuction!


http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/13/23/15601903.jpg






Now Check your Understanding


What part of speech are the underlined words


I bought a beautiful dress at the mall.

What did she ask you to do?

I left my shoes under the kitchen table.

If we finish our work quickly we can go to the movies.

On Saturdays I work from nine to five.

I want to go to auniversity in the United States.

I'm sure I have met your girlfriend before.

Well, I don't think I will be here to answer the phone.

Andy knocked on the door but nobody answered.

After lunch let's go out for a coffee



Answers


Adj
Pronoun
Prepositon
Adv
Verb
Noun
Verb
Interjection
Conjuction
Preposition

Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 03:31:35 +0100
What are Verbs


http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/pic_stop.gifThe verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word.
Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action.
But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of "being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state.
A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe:


action (Ram plays football.)

state (Anthony seems kind.)

There is something very special about verbs in English. Most other words (adjectives, adverbs, prepositions etc) do not change in form (although nouns can have singular and plural forms). But almost all verbs change in form. For example, the verb to work has five forms:


to work, work, works, worked, working

Of course, this is still very few forms compared to some languages which may have thirty or more forms for a single verb




Verb Classification



We divide verbs into two broad classifications:

1. Helping Verbs


Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:


I can.

People must.

The Earth will.

Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That's because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs.

2. Main Verbs


Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:


I teach.

People eat.

The Earth rotates.

Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs.
In the following table we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb



http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/13/23/52156904.jpg



Helping verbs and main verbs can be further sub-divided, as we shall see





Helping Verbs


Helping verbs have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of a sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb (which has the real meaning). There are only about 15 helping verbs in English, and we divide them into two basic groups
:

Primary helping verbs (3 verbs




These are the verbs be, do, and have. Note that we can use these three verbs as helping verbs or as main verbs. On this page we talk about them as helping verbs. We use them in the following cases:


be


to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.)

to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.)




have


to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.)




do


to make negatives (I do not like you.)

to ask questions (Do you want some coffee?)

to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.)

to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she does.)




Modal helping verbs (10 verbs)




We use modal helping verbs to "modify" the meaning of the main verb in some way. A modal helping verb expresses necessity or possibility, and changes the main verb in that sense. These are the modal verbs:


can, could

may, might

will, would,

shall, should

must

ought to

Here are examples using modal verbs:


I can't speak Chinese.

John may arrive late.

Would you like a cup of coffee?

You should see a doctor.

I really must go now



Main verbs


have meaning on their own (unlike helping verbs). There are thousands of main verbs, and we can classify them in several ways:



Transitive and intransitive verbs




A transitive verb takes a direct object: Somebody killed the President. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object: He died. Many verbs, like speak, can be transitive or intransitive. Look at these examples:
transitive:


I saw an elephant.

We are watching TV.

He speaks English.

intransitive:


He has arrived.

John goes to school.

She speaks fast.



Linking verbs




A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject. Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are always intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).


Mary is a teacher. (mary = teacher)

Tara is beautiful. (tara = beautiful)

That sounds interesting. (that = interesting)

The sky became dark. (the sky > dark)

The bread has gone bad. (bread > bad)



Dynamic and stative verbs




Some verbs describe action. They are called "dynamic", and can be used with continuous tenses. Other verbs describe state (non-action, a situation). They are called "stative", and cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning).
dynamic verbs (examples):


hit, explode, fight, run, go

stative verbs (examples):


be

like, love, prefer, wish

impress, please, surprise

hear, see, sound

belong to, consist of, contain, include, need

appear, resemble, seem



Regular and irregular verbs




This is more a question of vocabulary than of grammar. The only real difference between regular and irregular verbs is that they have different endings for their past tense and past participle forms. For regular verbs, the past tense ending and past participle ending is always the same: -ed. For irregular verbs, the past tense ending and the past participle ending is variable, so it is necessary to learn them by heart.
regular verbs: base, past tense, past participle


look, looked, looked

work, worked, worked

irregular verbs: base, past tense, past participle


buy, bought, bought

cut, cut, cut

do, did, done


Regular Verbs


English regular verbs change their form very little (unlike irregular verbs). The past tense and past participle of regular verbs end in -ed, for example:


work, worked, worked


But you should note the following points:

1. Some verbs can be both regular and irregular, for example:


learn, learned, learned



learn, learnt, learnt

2. Some verbs change their meaning depending on whether they are regular or irregular, for example "to hang


hang, hanged, hanged
to kill or die, by dropping with a rope around the neck


hang, hung, hung
to fix something (for example, a picture) at the top so that the lower part is free



Regular Verbs List



There are thousands of regular verbs in English. This is a list of 600 of the more common regular verbs. Note that there are some spelling variations in American English (for example, "practise" becomes "practice" in American English





accept
add
admire
admit
advise
afford
agree
alert
allow
amuse
analyse
announce
annoy
answer
apologise
appear
applaud
appreciate
approve
argue
arrange
arrest
arrive
ask
attach
attack
attempt
attend
attract
avoid
back
bake
balance
ban
bang
bare
bat
bathe
battle
beam
beg
behave
belong
bleach
bless
blind
blink
blot
blush
boast
boil
bolt
bomb
book
bore
borrow
bounce
bow
box
brake
brake
branch
breathe
bruise
brush
bubble
bump
burn
bury
buzz
calculate
call
camp
care
carry
carve
cause
challenge
change
charge
chase
cheat
check
cheer
chew
choke
chop
claim
clap
clean
clear
clip
close
coach
coil
collect
colour
comb
command
communicate
compare
compete
complain
complete
concentrate
concern
confess
confuse
connect
consider
consist
contain
continue
copy
correct
cough
count
cover
crack
crash
crawl
cross
crush
cry
cure
curl
curve
cycle
dam
damage
dance
dare
decay
deceive
decide
decorate
delay
delight
deliver
depend
describe
desert
deserve
destroy
detect
develop
disagree
disappear
disapprove
disarm
discover
dislike
divide
double
doubt
drag
drain
dream
dress
drip
drop
drown
drum
dry
dust
earn
educate
embarrass
employ
empty
encourage
end
enjoy
enter
entertain
escape
examine
excite
excuse
exercise
exist
expand
expect
explain
explode
extend
face
fade
fail
fancy
fasten
fax
fear
fence
fetch
file
fill
film
fire
fit
fix
flap
flash
float
flood
flow
flower
fold
follow
fool
force
form
found
frame
frighten
fry
gather
gaze
glow
glue
grab
grate
grease
greet
grin
grip
groan
guarantee
guard
guess
guide
hammer
hand
handle
hang
happen
harass
harm
hate
haunt
head
heal
heap
heat
help
hook
hop
hope
hover
hug
hum
hunt
hurry
identify
ignore
imagine
impress
improve
include
increase
influence
inform
inject
injure
instruct
intend
interest
interfere
interrupt
introduce
invent
invite
irritate
itch
jail
jam
jog
join
joke
judge
juggle
jump
kick
kill
kiss
kneel
knit
knock
knot
label
land
last
laugh
launch
learn
level
license
lick
lie
lighten
like
list
listen
live
load
lock
long
look
love
man
manage
march
mark
marry
match
mate
matter
measure
meddle
melt
memorise
mend
mess up
milk
mine
miss
mix
moan
moor
mourn
move
muddle
mug
multiply
murder
nail
name
need
nest
nod
note
notice
number
obey
object
observe
obtain
occur
offend
offer
open
order
overflow
owe
own
pack
paddle
paint
park
part
pass
paste
pat
pause
peck
pedal
peel
peep
perform
permit
phone
pick
pinch
pine
place
plan
plant
play
please
plug
point
poke
polish
pop
possess
post
pour
practise
pray
preach
precede
prefer
prepare
present
preserve
press
pretend
prevent
prick
print
produce
program
promise
protect
provide
pull
pump
punch
puncture
punish
push
question
queue

race
radiate
rain
raise
reach
realise
receive
recognise
record
reduce
reflect
refuse
regret
reign
reject
rejoice
relax
release
rely
remain
remember
remind
remove
repair
repeat
replace
reply
report
reproduce
request
rescue
retire
return
rhyme
rinse
risk
rob
rock
roll
rot
rub
ruin
rule
rush
sack
sail
satisfy
save
saw
scare
scatter
scold
scorch
scrape
scratch
scream
screw
scribble
scrub
seal
search
separate
serve
settle
shade
share
shave
shelter
shiver
shock
shop
shrug
sigh
sign
signal
sin
sip
ski
skip
slap
slip
slow
smash
smell
smile
smoke
snatch
sneeze
sniff
snore
snow
soak
soothe
sound
spare
spark
sparkle
spell
spill
spoil
spot
spray
sprout
squash
squeak
squeal
squeeze
stain
stamp
stare
start
stay
steer
step
stir
stitch
stop
store
strap
strengthen
stretch
strip
stroke
stuff
subtract
succeed
suck
suffer
suggest
suit
supply
support
suppose
surprise
surround
suspect
suspend
switch
talk
tame
tap
taste
tease
telephone
tempt
terrify
test
thank
thaw
tick
tickle
tie
time
tip
tire
touch
tour
tow
trace
trade
train
transport
trap
travel
treat
tremble
trick
trip
trot
trouble
trust
try
tug
tumble
turn
twist
type
undress
unfasten
unite
unlock
unpack
untidy
use
vanish
visit

wail
wait
walk
wander
want
warm
warn
wash
waste
watch
water
wave
weigh
welcome
whine
whip
whirl
whisper
whistle
wink
wipe
wish
wobble
wonder
work
worry
wrap
wreck
wrestle
wriggle
x-ray

yawn
yell


zip


zoom







Irregular Verbs List



This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. Of course, there are many others, but these are the more common irregular verbs



Base FormPast SimplePast Participle
awake....awoke.....awoken
be...was, were...been
beat....beat...beaten
become...became...become
begin....began...begun
bend...bent...bent
bet...bet...bet
bid...bid...bid
bite...bit...bitten
blow...blew...blown
break...broke...broken
bring...brought...brought
broadcast...broadcast...broadcast
build...built...built
burn...burned/burnt...burned/burnt
buy...bought...bought
catch...caught...caught
choose...chose...chosen
come...came...come
cost...cost...cost
cut..cut...cut
dig...dug...dug
do...did...done
draw...drew...drawn
dream ...dreamed/dreamt...dreamed/dreamt
drive...drove...driven
drink... drank...drunk
eat...ate...eaten
fall...fell...fallen
feel...felt...felt
fight...fought...fought
find...found...found
fly...flew...flown
forget...forgot...forgotten
forgive...forgave...forgiven
freeze...froze...frozen
get...got...gotten
give...gave...given
go...went...gone
grow...grew...grown
hang...hung...hung
have...had...had
hear...heard...heard
hide...hid...hidden
hit...hit...hit
hold...held...held
hurt...hurt...hurt
keep...kept...kept
know...knew...known
lay...laid...laid
lead...led...led
learn...learned/learnt...learned/learnt
leave...left...left
lend...lent...lent
let...let...let
lie...lay...lain
lose...lost...lost
make...made...made
mean...meant...meant
meet...met...met
pay...paid...paid
put...put...put
read...read...read
ride...rode...ridden
ring...rang...rung
rise...rose...risen
run...ran...run
say...said...said
see...saw...seen
sell...sold...sold
send...sent...sent
show...showed...showed/shown
shut...shut...shut
sing...sang...sung
sit...sat...sat
sleep...slept...slept
speak...spoke...spoken
spend...spent...spent
stand...stood...stood
swim...swam...swum
take...took...taken
teach...taught...taught
tear...tore...torn
tell...told...told
think...thought...thought
throw...threw...thrown understand...understood...understood
wake...woke...woken
wear...wore...worn
win...won...won
write...wrote...written

Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 03:34:45 +0100
ان شاء الله تتم التكمله لاحقا
لان تعبت بهاي
فانتظروا لان الدروس هوايه

A H M E D
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 08:22:06 +0100
لك هاي شننننننوووووووووو عاشو حبي والله مبدع يوم تصير مشرف على هل قسم وننام براسك هع هع هع اتقبل تحياتي خويه

Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 11:54:15 +0100
كل الهلا بيك
وان شاء الله تكون استفاديت من الدروس

Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 12:28:20 +0100
What is Grammar?


http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/gr100pc.gif
Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules" of a language; but in fact no language has rules*. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages did not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words, phrases and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time.
Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? The short answer is "no". Very many people in the world speak their own, native language without having studied its grammar. Children start to speak before they even know the word "grammar". But if you are serious about learning a foreign language, the long answer is "yes, grammar can help you to learn a language more quickly and more efficiently." It's important to think of grammar as something that can help you, like a friend. When you understand the grammar (or system) of a language, you can understand many things yourself, without having to ask a teacher or look in a book.
So think of grammar as something good, something positive, something that you can use to find your way - like a signpost or a map.
* Except invented languages like Esperanto. And if Esperanto were widely spoken, its rules would soon be very different





Glossary of English Grammar Terms



Active Voice
In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice.
Adjective
A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
Adverb
A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb.
Article
The "indefinite" articles are a and an. The "definite article" is the.
Auxiliary Verb
A verb that is used with a main verb. Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs. Can, may, must etc are modal auxiliary verbs.
Clause
A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived).
Conjunction
A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: and, but, if).
Infinitive
The basic form of a verb as in to work or work.
Interjection
An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection (for example: oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!).
Modal Verb
An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb".
Noun
A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc. A noun is the name of an object, concept, person or place. A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or car. An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example: bottle, song, dollar). An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for example: water, music, money).
Object
In the active voice, a noun or its *****alent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its *****alent that does the action of the verb.
Participle
The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle" (for irregular verbs, this is column 3).
Part Of Speech
One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection.
Passive Voice
In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice.
Phrase
A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress).
Predicate
Each sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The predicate is what is said about the subject.
Preposition
A word like at, to, in, over etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction.
Pronoun
A word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.
Sentence
A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!).
Subject
Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or *****alent) in a sentence about which something is said.
Tense
The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.
Verb
A word like (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin. A verb describes an action or state









Nouns


It's not easy to describe a noun. In simple terms, nouns are "things" (and verbs are "actions"). Like food. Food (noun) is something you eat (verb). Or happiness. Happiness (noun) is something you want (verb). Or human being. A human being (noun) is something you are (verb).



What are Nouns?



The simple definition is: a person, place or thing. Here are some examples:


person: man, woman, teacher, John, Mary

place: home, office, town, countryside, America

thing: table, car, banana, money, music, love, dog, monkey

The problem with this definition is that it does not explain why "love" is a noun but can also be a verb.
Another (more complicated) way of recognizing a noun is by its:


Ending

Position

Function

1. Noun Ending
There are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun, for example:


-ity > nationality

-ment > appointment

-ness > happiness

-ation > relation

-hood > childhood

But this is not true for the word endings of all nouns. For example, the noun "spoonful" ends in -ful, but the adjective "careful" also ends in -ful.
2. Position in Sentence
We can often recognise a noun by its position in the sentence.
Nouns often come after a determiner (a determiner is a word like a, an, the, this, my, such):


a relief

an afternoon

the doctor

this word

my house

such stupidity

Nouns often come after one or more adjectives:


a great relief

a peaceful afternoon

the tall, Indian doctor

this difficult word

my brown and white house

such crass stupidity

3. Function in a Sentence
Nouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence, for example:


subject of verb: Doctors work hard.

object of verb: He likes coffee.

subject and object of verb: Teachers teach students.

But the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun. It could be a pronoun or a phrase. In the sentence "My doctor works hard", the noun is "doctor" but the subject is "My doctor





Countable and Uncountable Nouns


English nouns are often described as "countable" or "uncountable




Countable Nouns


Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:


dog, cat, animal, man, person

bottle, box, litre

coin, note, dollar

cup, plate, fork

table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:


My dog is playing.

My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:


A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:


I want an orange. (not I want orange.)

Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:


I like oranges.

Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:


I've got some dollars.

Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:


I've got a few dollars.

I haven't got many pens




Uncountable Nouns


Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:


music, art, love, happiness

advice, information, news

furniture, luggage

rice, sugar, butter, water

electricity, gas, power

money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:


This news is very important.

Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:


a piece of news

a bottle of water

a grain of rice

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:


I've got some money.

Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:


I've got a little money.

I haven't got much rice


Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable


Sometimes, the same noun can be countable and uncountable, often with a change of meaning






http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/21327671.jpg



Drinks (coffee, water, orange juice) are usually uncountable. But if we are thinking of a cup or a glass, we can say (in a restaurant, for example):


Two teas and one coffee please





Proper Nouns (Names)


A proper noun is the special word (or name) that we use for a person, place or organization, like John, Marie, London, France or Sony. A name is a noun, but a very special noun—a proper noun. Proper nouns have special rules



http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/52634543.jpg






Using Capital Letters with Proper Nouns


We always use a Capital Letter for the first letter of a proper noun (name). This includes names of people, places, companies, days of the week and months. For example:


They like John. (not *They like john.)

I live in England.

She works for Sony.

The last day in January is a Monday.

We saw Titanic in the Odeon Cinema



Proper Nouns without THE


We do not use “the” with names of people


We do not normally use “the” with names of companies. For example:


Renault, Ford, Sony, EnglishClub.com

General Motors, Air France, British Airways

Warner Brothers, Brown & Son Ltd

We do not normally use “the” for shops, banks, hotels etc named after a founder or other person (with -’s or -s





Possessive 's


When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add 's to a singular noun and an apostrophe ' to a plural noun, for example:


the boy's ball (one boy)

the boys' ball (two or more boys)

Notice that the number of balls does not matter. The structure is influenced by the possessor and not the possessed


The structure can be used for a whole phrase:


the man next door's mother (the mother of the man next door)

the Queen of England's poodles (the poodles of the Queen of England)




Although we can use of to show possession, it is more usual to use possessive 's. The following phrases have the same meaning, but #2 is more usual and natural:


the boyfriend of my sister

my sister's boyfriend


Proper Nouns (Names)


We very often use possessive 's with names:


This is Mary's car.

Where is Ram's telephone?

Who took Anthony's pen?

I like Tara's hair.

When a name ends in s, we usually treat it like any other singular noun, and add 's:


This is Charles's chair.

But it is possible (especially with older, classical names) to just add the apostrophe ':


Who was Firas' father?

Irregular Plurals


Some nouns have irregular plural forms without s (man > men). To show possession, we usually add 's to the plural form of these nouns

Callous Soul
, Sun, 14 Jan 2007 12:55:55 +0100
Adjectives


An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun. (By "noun" we include pronouns and noun phrases.) An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun (a big dog). Adjectives can be used before a noun (I like Chinese food) or after certain verbs (It is hard). We can often use two or more adjectives together (a beautiful young French lady



It is sometimes said that the adjective is the enemy of the noun. This is because, very often, if we use the precise noun we don't need an adjective. For example, instead of saying "a large, impressive house" (2 adjectives + 1 noun) we could simply say "a mansion" (1 noun).






Determiners


Determiners are words like the, an, my, some. They are grammatically similar. They all come at the beginning of noun phrases, and usually we cannot use more than one determiner in the same noun phrase.
Articles:


a, an, the

Possessives:


my, your, his, her, our, their

Other determiners:


each, every

either, neither

any, some, no

much, many; more, most

little, less, least

few, fewer, fewest

what, whatever; which, whichever

both, half, all

several

enough

Some grammarians do not consider determiners as adjectives, but give them a class of their own.






Determiners: A, An or The?


When do we say "the dog" and when do we say "a dog"? (On this page we talk only about singular, countable nouns.)
The and a/an are called "articles". We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite"



We use "definite" to mean sure, certain. "Definite" is particular.
We use "indefinite" to mean not sure, not certain. "Indefinite" is general.
When we are talking about one thing in particular, we use the. When we are talking about one thing in general, we use a or an.
Think of the sky at night. In the sky we see 1 moon and millions of stars. So normally we would say:


I saw the moon last night.

I saw a star last night.

Look at these examples:




http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/90348674.jpg



Of course, often we can use the or a/an for the same word. It depends on the situation, not the word. Look at these examples:


We want to buy an umbrella. (Any umbrella, not a particular umbrella.)

Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella. We are looking for our umbrella, a particular umbrella.)


This little story should help you understand the difference between the and a, an:


A man and a woman were walking in Oxford Street. The woman saw a dress that she liked in a shop. She asked the man if he could buy the dress for her. He said: "Do you think the shop will accept a cheque? I don't have a credit card."







Determiners: Each, Every


Each and every have similar but not always identical meanings.
Each = every one separately
Every = each, all


Sometimes, each and every have the same meaning:


Prices go up each year.

Prices go up every year.


But often they are not exactly the same.
Each expresses the idea of 'one by one'. It emphasizes individuality.
Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general.
Consider the following:


Every artist is sensitive.

Each artist sees things differently.

Every soldier saluted as the President arrived.

The President gave each soldier a medal.

Each can be used in front of the verb:


The soldiers each received a medal.

Each can be followed by 'of':


The President spoke to each of the soldiers.

He gave a medal to each of them.


Every cannot be used for 2 things. For 2 things, each can be used:


He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

Every is used to say how often something happens:


There is a plane to Bangkok every day.

The bus leaves every hour.






Determiners: Some, Any


Some = a little, a few or a small number or amount
Any = one, some or all
Usually, we use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences.



http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/83847658.jpg





In general, we use something/anything and somebody/anybody in the same way as some/any


Look at these examples:


He needs some stamps.

I must go. I have some homework to do.

I'm thirsty. I want something to drink.

I can see somebody coming.


He doesn't need any stamps.

I can stay. I don't have any homework to do.

I'm not thirsty. I don't want anything to drink.

I can't see anybody coming.


Does he need any stamps?

Do you have any homework to do?

Do you want anything to drink?

Can you see anybody coming?

We use any in a positive sentence when the real sense is negative.


I refused to give them any money. (I did not give them any money)

She finished the test without any difficulty. (she did not have any difficulty)

Sometimes we use some in a question, when we expect a positive YES answer. (We could say that it is not a real question, because we think we know the answer already.)


Would you like some more tea?

Could I have some sugar, please?









Adjective Order


There are 2 basic positions for adjectives:


before the noun

after certain verbs (be, become, get, seem, look, feel, sound, smell, taste




Adjective Before Noun


We sometimes use more than one adjective before the noun:


I like big black dogs.

She was wearing a beautiful long red dress.

What is the correct order for two or more adjectives?
1. The general order is: opinion, fact:


a nice French car (not a French nice car)

("Opinion" is what you think about something. "Fact" is what is definitely true about something.)
2. The normal order for fact adjectives is size, age, shape, colour, material, origin:


a big, old, square, black, wooden Chinese table

3. Determiners usually come first, even though they are fact adjectives:


articles (a, the)

possessives (my, your...)

demonstratives (this, that...)

quantifiers (some, any, few, many...)

numbers (one, two, three)

Here is an example with opinion and fact adjectives:



http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/28601023.jpg



When we want to use two colour adjectives, we join them with "and":


Many newspapers are black and white.

She was wearing a long, blue and yellow dress


The rules on this page are for the normal, "natural" order of adjectives. But these rules are not rigid, and you may sometimes wish to change the order for emphasis. Consider the following conversations:


Conversation 1
A "I want to buy a round table."
B "Do you want a new round table or an old round table?"


Conversation 2
A "I want to buy an old table".
B "Do you want a round old table or a square old table?"




Adjectives after verbs



Look at the examples below:
subject verb adjective


Ram is English.

Because she had to wait, she became impatient.

Is it getting dark?

The examination did not seem difficult.

Your friend looks nice.

This towel feels damp.

That new film doesn't sound very interesting.

Dinner smells good tonight.

This milk tastes sour.








Comparative Adjectives


When we talk about two things, we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences


In the example below, "bigger" is the comparative form of the adjective "big":
A1 A2
A1 is bigger than A2.







Formation of Comparative Adjectives


There are two ways to make or form a comparative adjective:


short adjectives: add "-er"

long adjectives: use "more"



http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/82317745.jpg







Exception
The following adjectives have irregular forms:


good > better

well (healthy) > better

bad > worse

far > farther/further



With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-er' or 'more':


quiet > quieter/more quiet

clever > cleverer/more clever

narrow > narrower/more narrow

simple > simpler/more simple




Use of Comparative Adjectives


We use comparative adjectives when talking about 2 things (not 3 or 10 or 1,000,000 things, only 2 things).
Often, the comparative adjective is followed by "than".
Look at these examples:


John is 1m80. He is tall. But Chris is 1m85. He is taller than John.

America is big. But Russia is bigger.

I want to have a more powerful computer.

Is French more difficult than English?


Although we use comparative adjectives when talking about two things (not three or more things), in fact one or both of the things may be a group of things.


Mt Everest is higher than all other mountains.

Here, we are talking about hundreds of mountains, but we are still comparing one thing (Mt Everest) to one other thing (all other mountains).







Superlative Adjectives


A superlative adjective expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. We use a superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things.
In the example below, "biggest" is the superlative form of the adjective "big":
A B C

A is the biggest.






Formation of Superlative Adjectives


As with comparative adjectives, there are two ways to form a superlative adjective:


short adjectives: add "-est"

long adjectives: use "most"

We also usually add 'the' at the beginning.




http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/14/09/58496694.jpg




With some 2-syllable adjectives, we can use '-est' or 'most':


quiet > the quietest/most quiet

clever > the cleverest/most clever

narrow > the narrowest/most narrow

simple > the simplest/most simple


Exception
The following adjectives have irregular forms:


good > the best

bad > the worst

far > the furthest





Use of Superlative Adjectives


We use a superlative adjective to describe one thing in a group of three or more things. Look at these examples:


John is 1m75. David is 1m80. Chris is 1m85. Chris is the tallest.

Canada, China and Russia are big countries. But Russia is the biggest.

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world


When we compare one thing with itself, we do not use "the":


England is coldest in winter. (not the coldest)

My boss is most generous when we get a big order. (not the most generous

ღ Ťį́́' ǺмΌ ВĔŁŁâ ღ
, Wed, 17 Jan 2007 03:01:42 +0100
wow this is a great topic for every person wants to learn English thanx a lot keep up

Callous Soul
, Fri, 19 Jan 2007 22:52:00 +0100
Adverbs



An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. An adverb "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The man ran quickly). But adverbs can also modify adjectives (Tara is really beautiful), or even other adverbs (It works very well).
Many different kinds of word are called adverbs. We can usually recognise an adverb by its:


Function (Job)

Form

Position



1. Function


The principal job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. In the following examples, the adverb is in bold and the word that it modifies is in italics.


Modify a verb:
- John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?)
- Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?)
- She never smokes. (When does she smoke?)

Modify an adjective:
- He is really handsome.

Modify another adverb:
- She drives incredibly slowly.

But adverbs have other functions, too. They can:


Modify a whole sentence:
- Obviously, I can't know everything.

Modify a prepositional phrase:
- It's immediately inside the door






2. Form



Many adverbs end in -ly. We form such adverbs by adding -ly to the adjective. Here are some examples:


quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly

But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. "Friendly", for example, is an adjective.
Some adverbs have no particular form, for example:


well, fast, very, never, always, often, still



3. Position


Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence:


Front (before the subject):
- Now we will study adverbs.

Middle (between the subject and the main verb):
- We often study adverbs.

End (after the verb or object):
- We study adverbs carefully



Adverbs of Frequency





http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/19/19/76635685.jpg



Adverbs of Frequency answer the question "How often?" or "How frequently?" They tell us how often somebody does something.
Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb (except the main verb "to be"):


We usually go shopping on Saturday.

I have often done that.

She is always late.

Occasionally, sometimes, often, frequently and usually can also go at the beginning or end of a sentence:


Sometimes they come and stay with us.

I play tennis occasionally.

Rarely and seldom can also go at the end of a sentence (often with "very"):


We see them rarely.

John eats meat very seldom

Callous Soul
, Fri, 19 Jan 2007 22:59:01 +0100
English Pronouns


Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each... If we didn't have pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:


Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too pompous.

With pronouns, we can say:


Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too pompous




Personal Pronouns


This summary of personal pronouns includes possessive adjectives for convenience and comparison





http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/19/19/78263011.jpg




* m=male f=female n=neuter
Examples:




http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/19/19/98504876.jpg

Callous Soul
, Fri, 19 Jan 2007 23:05:49 +0100
English Prepositions List


There are about 150 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.


aboard

about

above

across

after

against

along

amid

among

anti

around

as

at


before

behind

below

beneath

beside

besides

between

beyond

but

by


concerning

considering


despite

down

during


except

excepting

excluding


following

for

from


in

inside

into


like


minus


near


of

off

on

onto

opposite

outside

over


past

per

plus


regarding

round


save

since


than

through

to

toward

towards


under

underneath

unlike

until

up

upon


versus

via


with

within

without





English Preposition Rule

There is one very simple rule about prepositions. And, unlike most rules, this rule has no exceptions.
Rule
A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb.
By "noun" we include:


noun (dog, money, love)

proper noun (name) (Bangkok, Mary)

pronoun (you, him, us)

noun group (my first job)

gerund (swimming)
A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form.
Quick Quiz: In the following sentences, why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible, according to the above rule:


I would like to go now.

She used to smoke.



Here are some examples

http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/19/20/91376078.jpg


:

LoSt AnGeL
, Sat, 20 Jan 2007 00:50:43 +0100
thank u dea 4 the huge effort
i hope u'll keep it

Callous Soul
, Sat, 20 Jan 2007 00:55:22 +0100
i will do

Callous Soul
, Sat, 20 Jan 2007 23:01:34 +0100
Conjunctions


A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.
Here are some example conjunctions



http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/20/19/70206877.jpg




We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.



Form


Conjunctions have three basic forms:


Single Word
for example: and, but, because, although

Compound (often ending with as or that)
for example: provided that, as long as, in order that

Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)
for example: so...that


Function


Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":


Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:
- Jack and Jill went up the hill.
- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.

Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example:
- I went swimming although it was cold.


Position


Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.

Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause



Coordinating Conjunctions



The short, simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions":


and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure
:



Look at these examples - the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in square brackets [ ]:


I like [tea] and [coffee].

[Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction:


I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university.

However, if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is not really essential:


She is kind so she helps people.

When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional:


He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.

He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.




Subordinating Conjunctions



The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". Common subordinating conjunctions are:


after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while

A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause
:



A subordinate or dependent clause "depends" on a main or independent clause. It cannot exist alone. Imagine that somebody says to you: "Hello! Although it was raining." What do you understand? Nothing! But a main or independent clause can exist alone. You will understand very well if somebody says to you: "Hello! Ram went swimming."



A subordinating conjunction always comes at the beginning of a subordinate clause. It "introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. Thus, two structures are possible
:
http://www.englishclub.com/pixel.gif http://www.englishclub.com/pixel.gifRam went swimming although it was raining.


http://www.englishclub.com/pixel.gifAlthough it was raining, Ram went swimming




..............

Callous Soul
, Sat, 20 Jan 2007 23:14:08 +0100
Interjections



Hi! That's an interjection



Interjections like er and um are also known as "hesitation devices". They are extremely common in English. People use them when they don't know what to say, or to indicate that they are thinking about what to say. You should learn to recognize them when you hear them and realize that they have no real meaning

.
Interjection is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written


.
The table below shows some interjections with examples



http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/20/20/13932671.jpg

Callous Soul
, Sun, 21 Jan 2007 22:44:13 +0100
Vocabulary



Clothing



http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/21/19/37464919.jpg








Clothing Accessories


http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/01/21/19/58291158.jpg







Transport



http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/01/21/19/40314915.jpg

Callous Soul
, Sun, 21 Jan 2007 22:51:08 +0100
Computer Vocabulary



Anti-virus software - A program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) that finds and removes viruses (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#virus) from a computer.
Backup - A copy on floppy disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#floppy) or tape of files on a PC's hard disk. A backup is used in case the hard disk file(s) are erased or damaged.
Bit, bytes - A bit is the smallest piece of information that computers use. For simplicity, a PC uses bits in groups of 8 called bytes (8 bits = 1 byte).
Boot, boot up, boot disk - You boot (or boot up) your computer when you switch it on and wait while it prepares itself. Instructions for startup are given to the computer from the boot disk, which is usually the hard disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#harddisk).
Browser, to browse - A browser is a program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) like Netscape or Internet Explorer. You use it to view or browse the Internet (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#internet).
Bug - A (small) defect or fault in a program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program).
Cache - A kind of memory (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#memory) used to make a computer work faster.
CD-ROM - A disk for storing computer information. It looks like an audio CD.
CPU - Central Processing Unit. This is a PC's heart or 'brains'.
DOS - Disk Operating System. The original system used for PCs. You type in commands instead of pointing and clicking.
Driver - A small program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) that tells a PC how a peripheral (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#peripheral) works.
Electronic mail (email, e-mail) - Messages sent from one computer to another. You can see email on the screen or print it out.
Floppy disk - A cheap, removable disk used for storing or transferring information. It is floppy (soft) because it is plastic. See hard disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#harddisk).
Floppy drive - The device used to run a floppy disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#floppy) (usually drive 'A'.)
Folder (directory) - A sub-division of a computer's hard disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#harddisk) into which you put files.
Font - A particular sort of lettering (on the screen or on paper). Arial is a font. Times New Roman is another.
Format - All hard disks (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#harddisk) and floppy disks (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#floppy) have to be electronically prepared for use by a process called formatting. Hard disks are pre-formatted by the computer manufacturer. If you buy a floppy disk that is not pre-formatted, you format it yourself, using a program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) that comes with your PC.
Graphics card - The equipment inside a computer that creates the image on the screen.
Hard disk - The main disk inside a computer used for storing programs (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) and information. It is hard because it is metal. See floppy disk (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#floppy).
Icon - A small image or picture on a computer screen that is a symbol for folders (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#folder), disks, peripherals, programs (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) etc.
Internet - International network of computers that you connect to by telephone line. Two popular services of the Internet are the World Wide Web (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#www) and electronic mail (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#email).
Kb, Mb, Gb - Kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes. Used to measure computer memory (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#memory) and storage.
Memory - Memory is for the temporary storing of information while a computer is being used. See RAM, ROM (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#ram) and Cache (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#cache).
MHz - Megahertz. This describes the speed of computer equipment. The higher the MHz the better the performance.
Modem - Equipment connected to a computer for sending/receiving digital information by telephone line. You need a modem to connect to the Internet (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#internet), to send electronic mail (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#email) and to fax.
OCR - Optical Character Recognition. OCR lets a PC read a fax or scanned image and convert it to actual lettering.
Parallel port - A socket at the back of a computer for connecting external equipment or peripherals (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#peripheral), especially printers.
PC card - A device that is the same size as a thick credit card, for plugging into a slot on notebook computers. You can buy memory (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#memory), modems (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#modem) and hard disks (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#harddisk) as PC cards.
Peripheral - Any equipment that is connected externally to a computer. For example, printers, scanners (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#scanner) and modems (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#modem) are peripherals.
Pixel - The image that you see on the screen is made of thousands of tiny dots, points or pixels.
Program Software that operates a PC and does various things, such as writing text (word-processing program), keeping accounts (accounts program) and drawing pictures (graphics program).
QWERTY - The first 6 letters on English-language keyboards are Q-W-E-R-T-Y. The first 6 letters on French-language keyboards are A-Z-E-R-T-Y.
RAM, ROM - Two types of memory (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#memory). RAM (Random Access Memory) is the main memory used while the PC is working. RAM is temporary. ROM (Read Only Memory) is for information needed by the PC and cannot be changed.
Resolution - The number of dots or pixels (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#pixel) per inch (sometimes per centimetre) used to create the screen image.
Scanner - Equipment for converting paper documents to electronic documents that can be used by a computer.
Serial port - Socket at the back of a PC for connecting peripherals (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#peripheral).
Taskbar, Start button - Two areas of the screen in Windows (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#windows) 95. The taskbar, at the bottom of the screen, shows the programs (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) in use. The start button, in the bottom left corner, is for opening new programs (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program).
TFT - Thin Film Transistor, a type of high quality screen for notebook computers.
Virus - A small, unauthorized program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program) that can damage a PC.
Windows - An operating system used by the majority of PCs. The current versions are Windows 98 and Windows NT.
World Wide Web, WWW, the Web - WWW are initials that stand for World Wide Web. The Web is one of the services available on the Internet (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#internet). It lets you access millions of pages through a system of links. Because it is 'world-wide', it was originally called the World Wide Web or WWW.
WYSIWIG - 'What You See Is What You Get.' With a WYSIWIG program (http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/computing.htm#program), if you print a document it looks the same on paper as it looks on the screen




.

Callous Soul
, Sun, 21 Jan 2007 23:13:05 +0100
Football Vocabulary




Football or soccer? Football refers to any of several games played with an inflated leather ball by two teams on a field with a goal at each end. The most common forms of football are: Rugby Football; American Football; Association Football—also known as soccer from (as)soc(iation football). The vocabulary on this page is for Soccer, the form most closely related to the original and the form played in the FIFA World Cup

.
attack ...to make a forceful attempt to score a goal
attacker...a player that has possession of the ball
away game...a game played at the opponent's ground
away team...the team that is visiting the opponent's ground
beat...to defeat
bench...a long seat for several people
captain...the player who leads and directs the other players on the field
centre circle...a circular marking in the centre of the field from which kickoffs are taken
champions...a team that has beaten all other teams in a sporting contest
championship...a sporting contest for the position of champion
changing rooms...the rooms where players dress to play
cheer...to shout in encouragement and give support
corner kick...a restart of the game where the ball is kicked from one of the four corners of the field
cross...a pass from an attacking player near the sideline to a team player in the middle or on the opposite side of the field (also a verb)
crossbar...the horizontal beam across the top of a goal
defend...to resist an attack
defenders...the players that do not have possession of the ball
draw...a game that ends with both teams having the same number of goals
dropped ball...a way of restarting the game where the referee drops the ball between two players
equalizer...a goal that makes the score even (the same for both teams)
extra time...a further period of play added on to the game if the scores are equal
field...the rectangular, grass area where a game is played
field markings...the straight and curved white lines painted onto the field
FIFA...Federation Internationale de Football Association; the official body of international football
FIFA World Cup...a solid gold statue given to the champion of each World Cup tournament to keep for the next 4 years
first half...the first 45 minutes of the game, before half-time
fit...in form, in good health
fixture...a game played on a particular date
fixture list...a programme of games
forward...one of the three or four players on a team who play at the front and are responsible for most of the scoring
foul...an unfair or invalid piece of play, against the rules
free kick...a kick given to a player for a foul by the opposition; the player kicks the ball without any opposing players within ten feet of him
friendly game...a game that is not part of a serious contest
goal...1. a ball that crosses the goal line between the goalposts and below the crossbar, winning one point 2. the structure consisting of two posts linked by a crossbar into which all goals are scored
goal area...the rectangular area 20 yards wide by 6 yards deep in front of each goal
goal kick...a way of restarting the game where the ball is kicked from inside the goal area away from the goal
goal line...the boundary or line at each end of the field
goalkeeper, goalie...the player in front of the goal who tries to stop the other team scoring
goalpost...one of the two upright posts of the goal, 8 feet high
goal scorer...a player who puts the ball into the goal and so "scores a goal"
ground...the place where a game is played
half-time...the 5-minute rest period between the first half and second half
hand ball...a foul, when a player touches the ball with his arm or hand
header...the striking of the ball by a player with his head
home...a team's own ground.
hooligan...a violent troublemaker
injury...a wound suffered by a player (for example: broken leg, sprained ankle)
injured player...a player who has been hurt or wounded
injury time...time added to the end of the first or second half to compensate for time lost because of player injuries
kick...to strike or hit with the foot (also a noun)
kick-off...the start of a game, or restart after a goal, when a player kicks the ball forwards
Laws of the Game...the 17 main rules for football established by FIFA
league...a group of teams that play each other for competition
linesman...the 2 officials who help the referee; they watch the sidelines and goal lines
match...a game of football
midfield...a region of the field near the midfield line
midfield line...a line that runs across the centre of the field; centre line; halfway line
midfield player...the players that play behind the forwards
national team...the team representing a particular country or nation
opposing team...a team playing against another team
own goal...a mistake, when a team places the ball inside its own goal
pass...when a player kicks the ball to a teammate
penalty area...a rectangular area in front of the goal, 44 yards wide by 18 yards deep
penalty kick, penalty shot...a kick from the penalty spot by a player against the opposing goal keeper; awarded for the most serious violations of the rules or used in the event of a draw
penalty spot...the small circle 12 yards in front of the goal
possession...control of the ball
red card...a small card, red in colour, that the referee holds up to show that a player must leave the game for very bad behaviour
referee...the chief official; he starts and stops play, makes all decisions about the rules, and acts as timekeeper
score... (verb)to put the ball into the goal and gain a point
score ...(noun)the amount of goals for each team
score a hat trick...when one player gets three goals in the same game
scorer...a player who scores or gets a goal
scoreboard...a large panel or other display that shows the current score or number of goals for each side
second half...the second 45 minutes of the game, after half-time
send a player off...when the referee tells a player to leave the field for bad behaviour
side...one of the two teams playing a game
sideline...the line that runs along the length of the field on each side; touchline
spectator...a person who watches a game (or other performance)
stadium...a special sports ground with seats for spectators where football (or another game) is played
striker...a team's best forward who plays near the centre of the field
studs...small points on the underneath of a player's boots to help prevent slipping
substitute...a player who replaces another player on the field
supporter...a spectator who supports one of the teams and wants it to win
tackle...to try to take the ball away from another player by kicking or stopping it with the feet
team...the members of one side
tie...when two teams have scored the same number of goals in a game; a draw
tiebreaker...a way of choosing the winner of a game when both teams have the same number of goals, for example by a series of penalty kicks
ball...the hollow sphere that players kick in soccer
coach...a person who trains a team
net...the mesh of cord hung over and behind the goal; can also mean the goal itself
pitch...the football field
ticket tout...a person who tries to sell tickets at a price higher than the official price
to keep goal...to be the goal keeper or goalie
to score a goal...to put the ball into the goal or net
to shoot at goa...lto kick the ball towards the goal
touch line...the line that runs along the length of the field on each side; sideline
underdog...a team that is not expected to win
unsporting behaviour...rude or bad conduct
whistle...the instrument that the referee blows to create a loud, high-pitched sound
winger...a forward who plays to the side of the striker or strikers
World Cup...the international soccer competition between nations, organized by FIFA every 4 years
yellow card...a small card, yellow in colour, that the referee holds up to warn a player for bad behavior

Callous Soul
, Fri, 26 Jan 2007 16:57:12 +0100
guys are u intersted of what im doing ?

coz i cant c any 1 here

LoSt AnGeL
, Fri, 26 Jan 2007 18:38:16 +0100
am sure they r but they r not supposed 2 write so they wont damage the continuity of the lessons

Callous Soul
, Sun, 11 Feb 2007 18:25:57 +0100
English Tense System




In some languages, verb tenses are not very important or do not even exist. In English, the concept of tense is very important.
In this lesson we look at the idea behind tense, how to avoid confusing tense with time, and the structure of the basic tenses, with examples using a regular verb, an irregular verb and the verb be.






What is Tense




Tense is a method that we use in English to refer to time—past, present and future. Many languages use tenses to talk about time. Other languages have no tenses, but of course they can still talk about time, using different methods.
So, we talk about time in English with tenses. But, and this is a very big but:


we can also talk about time without using tenses (for example, going to (http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-m_going-to.htm) is a special construction to talk about the future, it is not a tense)

one tense does not always talk about one time (see Tense & Time (http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verb-tenses_sys-tense-time.htm) for more about this)

Here are some of the terms used in discussing verbs and tenses.
Mood


indicative mood expresses a simple statement of fact, which can be positive (affirmative) or negative


I like coffee.

I do not like coffee.

interrogative mood expresses a question


Why do you like coffee?

imperative mood expresses a command


Sit down!

subjunctive mood expresses what is imagined or wished or possible


The President ordered that he attend the meeting.

Voice


Voice shows the relationship of the subject to the action. In the active voice, the subject does the action (cats eat mice). In the passive voice, the subject receives the action (mice are eaten by cats). Among other things, we can use voice to help us change the focus of attention.
Aspect


Aspect expresses a feature of the action related to time, such as completion or duration. Present simple and past simple tenses have no aspect, but if we wish we can stress with other tenses that:


the action or state referred to by the verb is completed (and often still relevant), for example:
I have emailed the report to Jane. (so now she has the report)
(This is called perfective aspect, using perfect tenses.)

the action or state referred to by the verb is in progress or continuing (that is, uncompleted), for example:
We are eating.
(This is called progressive aspect, using progressive [continuous] tenses.)





Tense & Time


It is important not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time.
For example, a present tense does not always refer to present time:


I hope it rains tomorrow.
"rains" is present simple, but it refers here to future time (tomorrow)

Or a past tense does not always refer to past time:


If I had some money now, I could buy it.
"had" is past simple but it refers here to present time (now)

The following examples show how different tenses can be used to talk about different times.







http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/69787539.jpg (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/69787539.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/69787539.jpg)









Basic Tenses


For past and present, there are 2 simple tenses + 6 complex tenses (using auxiliary verbs). To these, we can add 4 "modal tenses" for the future (using modal auxiliary verbs will/shall). This makes a total of 12 tenses in the active voice. Another 12 tenses are available in the passive voice. So now we have 24 tenses.




http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/72218816.jpg (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/72218816.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/72218816.jpg)








Some grammar books use the word progressive instead of continuous. They are exactly the same




The use of tenses in English may be quite complicated, but the structure of English tenses is actually very simple. The basic structure for a positive sentence is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
An auxiliary verb is used in all tenses. (In the simple present and simple past tenses, the auxiliary verb is usually suppressed for the affirmative, but it does exist for intensification.) The following table shows the 12 tenses for the verb to work in the active voice.







* Technically, there are no future tenses in English. The word will is a modal auxiliary verb and future tenses are sometimes called "modal tenses". The examples are included here for convenience and comparison




http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/98816998.jpg (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/98816998.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/98816998.jpg)





Basic Tenses: Regular Verb




This page shows the basic tenses with the regular verb work. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?).
The basic structure is:
positive:+subject + auxiliary verb + main verbnegative:-subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verbquestion:?auxiliary verb + subject + main verb







http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/10069918.jpg (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/10069918.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/10069918.jpg)









Basic Tenses: Irregular Verb



This page shows the basic tenses with the irregular verb sing. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?).
The basic structure is:
positive:+subject + auxiliary verb + main verbnegative:-subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verbquestion:?auxiliary verb + subject + main verb






http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/74467086.jpg (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/74467086.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/74467086.jpg)








The basic structure of tenses for regular verbs and irregular verbs is exactly the same (except to be). The only difference is that with regular verbs the past and past participle are always the same (worked, worked), while with irregular verbs the past and past participle are not always the same (sang, sung). But the structure is the same! It will help you a great deal to really understand that







Basic Tenses: Be



This page shows the basic tenses with the verb be. It includes the affirmative or positive form (+), the negative form (-) and the interrogative or question form (?).
The basic structure is:
positive:+subject + auxiliary verb + main verbnegative:-subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verbquestion:?auxiliary verb + subject + main verb
But for simple past and simple present tenses, the structure is not the same. In fact, it's even easier. There is no auxiliary verb. Here is the structure:
positive:+subject + main verbnegative:-subject + main verb + notquestion:?main verb + subject




http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/68917700.jpg (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/68917700.jpg)http://www.mriraq.com/vb/images/NLP_button.gif (http://www3.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/68917700.jpg)




http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/93262029.jpg





http://www4.0zz0.com/2007/02/11/15/42605209.jpg

- هايـ HaZeL ـزل -
, Thu, 01 Mar 2007 18:10:57 +0100
You are a brilliant and one of the most amazing
members of this forum, thanks alot for your
unwavering efforts,

Callous Soul
, Fri, 06 Apr 2007 16:03:34 +0200
Simple Present Tense




I sing



How do we make the Simple Present Tense?



subject+auxiliary verb+main verbdobase



There are three important exceptions
:


For positive sentences, we do not normally use the auxiliary.

For the 3rd person singular (he, she, it), we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary.

For the verb to be, we do not use an auxiliary, even for questions and negatives.

Look at these examples with the main verb like:






http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/194461635e8114f1.jpg





How do we use the Simple Present Tense?


We use the simple present tense when:


the action is general

the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future

the action is not only happening now

the statement is always true



Look at these examples:


I live in New York.

The Moon goes round the Earth.

John drives a taxi.

He does not drive a bus.

We do not work at night.

Do you play football?

Note that with the verb to be, we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the simple present tense—some of them are general, some of them are now:



http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/194461635e8328ce.jpg







This page shows the use of the simple present tense to talk about general events. But note that there are some other uses for the simple present tense, for example in conditional or if sentences, or to talk about the future. You will learn about those later

Callous Soul
, Fri, 06 Apr 2007 16:23:10 +0200
Present Continuous Tense


I am singing
We often use the present continuous tense in English. It is very different from the simple present tense, both in structure and in use.
In this lesson we look the structure and use of the present continuous tense,




How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?


The structure of the present continuous tense is:
subject+auxiliary verb+main verbbebase + ing
Look at these examples:




http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/19446163a7e3e53d.jpg





How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?


We use the present continuous tense to talk about:


action happening now

action in the future



Present continuous tense for action happening now


a) for action happening exactly now




http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/19446163a7e53dc8.jpg






Look at these examples. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time...





http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/book.gif
...the pages are turning.



http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/candle.gif
...the candle is burning



http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/numbers.gif
...the numbers are spinning.






b) for action happening around now
The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now, and it is not permanent or habitual.



http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/19446163a7e760b4.jpg





Look at these examples:


Muriel is learning to drive.

I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.



Present continuous tense for the future


We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future—if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking.




http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/19446163a7e9a3c6.jpg






Look at these examples:


We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table..

They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.

When are you starting your new job?

In these examples, we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. The decision and plan were made before speaking.






How do we spell the Present Continuous Tense?


We make the present continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. Normally it's simple—we just add -ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Perhaps we double the last letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the present continuous tense




http://www.mriraq.com/vb/imagehosting/19446163a7eba7c2.jpg

اسعد جبار
, Sat, 07 Apr 2007 11:23:58 +0200
Hi sir thanks for this information and thanks alot for helping participants here to learn English

اسعد جبار
, Sat, 07 Apr 2007 11:25:15 +0200
by the way u r very good in English and i 'd like to meet u through chat

Callous Soul
, Mon, 09 Apr 2007 03:37:53 +0200
It's my pleasure
thanks for the constructive input

....
and u can call me ALI

angle
, Tue, 17 Apr 2007 23:03:07 +0200
الف شكر يااخي على المجهود الرائع والموضوع الرائع وباأنتظار الباقي